From the assertion that recent studies of ancient DNA obtained from archaeological sources at Rakhigarhi, an Indus Valley site in Haryana, rule out Aryan immigrationto a call for more research into whether the Harappans and the Vedic people were the same. These are some of the significant changes introduced by the National Council for Education Research and Training (NCERT) in the history chapter meant for Class 12 students on the origins and fall of the Harappan civilisation. These changes are part of the revision and updating of history textbooks undertaken by NCERT for the academic year 2024-25, which were recently communicated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). NCERT, which advises the Union government on school education, is the apex body tasked with drafting school textbooks used by more than four crore students annually. Although changes have been carried out in History and  Sociology textbooks for Classes 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12, the most substantive have been made to the Chapter titled “Bricks, Beads and Bones – The Harappan Civilisation” in the Class 12 History textbook called ‘Themes in India History Part-I.’